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دانلود کتاب SCHAUM’S OUTLINE BIOLOGY

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 SCHAUM’S OUTLINE BIOLOGY
 GEORGE H. FRIED, Ph.D
1999
466
40MB
PDF
2000تومان


More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills.

PART I
Fundamentals of Biology
Chapter
1
THE BASIC STRUCTURE OF SCIENCE .............................
1
The Methods of Science. Biology as a Science. The Significance of Evolution.
Organization of Life.
Chapter
2
THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE: AN INORGANIC PERSPECTIVE .....
11
Atoms, Molecules, and Chemical Bonding. Chemical Reactions and the Concept
of Equilibrium. Colligative Properties of Solutions. The Laws of
Thermodynamics. The Special Case of Water. Maintaining Stable pH in Living
Systems.
Chapter
3
THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE: THE ORGANIC LEVEL ...............
29
Introduction. Carbohydrates. Proteins. Structure and Functions of Lipids. The
Chemical Basis of Living Systems.
PART I1
Biology of the Cell
Chapter
4
THE CELLULAR ORGANIZATION OF LIFE .......................
41
The Cell Doctrine. Cellular Organization. Cellular Organelles. Plant and Animal
Cells: Tissue Organization. Cell Size and Its Constraints. Movement Into and
Out of the Cell.
Chapter
5
ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS ....................................
60
Energy and Life. Thermodynamics. Cell Metabolism. Bioenergetics.
Chapter
6
PHOTOSYNTHESIS .................................................
80
An Overall View. The Light Reaction. The Dark Reaction (Calvin-Benson
Cycle). Photorespiration.
The C4 Pathway. Structure and Function in the
Chloroplast.
PART I11
Genetics and Inheritance
Chapter
7
THE NATURE OF THE GENE .......................................
93
The Concept of Information Processing in the Cell. The Search for the Chemical
Bases of Inheritance.
Encoding Information-The
Language of the Gene.
Processing the Information -Protein Synthesis. Reproduction of Information -
DNA Replication.
Modification of Information-
Mutation.
Genetic
Engineering.
V
vi
CONTENTS
Chapter 8 CELL REPRODUCTION ............................................. 111
Cell Cycles and Life Cycles. The Chromosomes as Packaged Genes. Mitosis.
Meiosis. A Possible Mechanism for Crossing Over. Sexual Reproduction and
Gene tic Variability.
Chapter
9
THE MECHANISM OF INHERITANCE .............................
125
Pre-Mendelian Concepts, Mendel's Laws. Linkage. Mapping the Chromosomes.
Sex Linkage. Variations in Gene Expression. Chromosomes and Gene
Expression. Treating Genetic Diseases.
Chapter 10
CONTROL MECHANISMS IN GENETICS ..........................
141
The Operon Hypothesis, Cistron, Recon, and Muton. Gene Regulation in
Eukaryotes. Cancer as a Genetic Aberration.
Chapter 11
EMBRYOLOGY .....................................................
153
Animal Development. Human Development. Plant Development. Control of
Differentiation. Major Contributions to the Field of Embryology.
Chapter 12
ANIMAL REPRODUCTION
........................................
170
An Evolutionary Survey. Male Reproductive System in Humans. Female
Reproductive System in Humans. Sexual Response in Humans. Contraception.
Sexual Preference. Sexual Dysfunction.
PART IV
Plant Biology
Chapter 13
BASIC STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN VASCULAR PLANTS
. .
182
Plant Nutrition. Movement of Water and Minerals in Xylem. Movement of
Food Through the Phloem.
Chapter 14
INTERACTIONS OF VASCULAR PLANTS WITH THEIR
ENVIRONMENT
....................................................
197
Tropisms. Plant Hormones. Photoperiodism. Plant Diseases.
PART V
Animal Biology
Chapter I5
HOMEOSTASIS :REGULATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL
FUNCTIONS .........................................................
206
Overview. Feedback Control. Regulation of Temperature. Regulation of Blood
Sugar.
vii
CONTENTS
Chapter 16
ANIMAL NUTRITION AND THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM ...........
216
Food Procurement. Digestion and Absorption. The Vertebrate Liver. Diet and
Health. Special Case of the Vitamins. Obesity and Eating Disorders.
Deficiency Diseases.
Chapter 17
THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM ........................................
235
Excretion in Invertebrates. Structure of the Vertebrate Kidney. Functioning of
the Vertebrate Kidney. Human Kidney Function. Homeostatic Function of the
Kidney. Accessory Excretory Structures.
Chapter 18
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM ......................................
247
Comparative Cardiovascular Systems of Vertebrates. The Human Heart.
Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries. Control of Blood Pressure. Constituents of
Blood and Lymph. Osmoregulation.
Chapter 19
IMMUNOLOGY .....................................................
263
The Human Immune Systems. The Immune Response. Hybridomas. AIDS.
Human Blood Groups.
Chapter 20
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
......................................
273
Mechanisms of External Respiration. Mammalian Respiration. Regulation of
Breathing. Exchange of O2and CO2 in the Blood.
Chapter 21
HORMONES AND THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM ....................
285
Early Endocrine Systems. Vertebrate Endocrine Systems. Mode of Action of
Hormones.
Chapter 22
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
...........................................
301
Overview. Phylogenetic Development of the Nervous System. The Neuron as
the Functional Unit of Nervous Activity. The Neural Impulse. The Synapse.
Reflex Arc. Receptors and Effectors. Special Sense Organs. Brain and Spinal
Cord. Autonomic Nervous System.
Chapter 23
THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM SUPPORT AND
MOVEMENT .........................................................
319
Invertebrate Support Systems. The Vertebrate Endoskeleton. Anatomy and
Physiology of Vertebrate Muscle.
Chapter 24
ANIMAL BEHAMOR ................................................
328
What Is Behavior? Components of Behavior. Cyclic Behavior Patterns. Sexual
Behavior. Social Organization. Modes of Communication. Biological
Determinism and Behavior.
CONTENTS
PART VI
Evolution and Ecology
Chapter 25
EVOLUTION THE PROCESS .......................................
340
A Brief History of the Concept of Change in Organisms. The Notion of a Gene
Pool: Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Natural Selection: A Modern Synthesis.
Punctuated Equilibrium. Molecular Biology of Evolutionary Change. Control
of Gene Pools. Speciation. Microevolution versus Macroevolution.
Chapter 26
ECOLOGY
..........................................................
352
Anatomy of an Ecosystem. Qpes of Ecosystems. Stability and Ecological
Succession. Biomass and Species Dispersal. Upsetting the Stability of an
Ecosystem.
Chapter 27
ORIGIN OF LIFE ....................................................
365
The Oparin Hypothesis. Heterotroph to Autotroph. Origin of Cells.
PART VIl
Biological Diversity
Chapter 28
THE KINGDOM MONERA (THE PROKARYOTES) ...............
371
Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. The Significance and Origin of Organelles.
Bacteria, the Ecosphere, and Human Interactions.
Chapter 29
THE KINGDOM PROTISTA .........................................
377
Protozoans. Algal Protists. Fungilike Protists.
Chapter 30
THE KINGDOM FUNGI ............................................
388
Basic Structure of Fungi. Divisions of Fungi. Reproductive Strategies of the
Fungi. Fungi as Friends and Foes.
Chapter 31
THE KINGDOM PLANTAE .........................................
3%
Bryophytes and the Challenge of a Terrestrial Environment. The Vascular Plants.
Seed Plants. Economic Importance of Plants. The Green Revolution.
Chapter 32
THE KINGDOM ANIMALIA ........................................
406
Subkingdom Parazoa: The Sponges. Radiata: Cnidaria and Ctenophora.
Bilateria: Deuterostomes and Protostomes. Acoelomates. Pseudocoelomates:
Rotifera and Nematoda. Protostome Coelomates. Deuterostome Coelomates.
Chapter 33
THE PRIMATES ....................................................
424
Primate Lineages. Primate Characteristics. Humankind and its Destiny.
Misconceptions of the Evolutionary Relationship Between Humans and Apes.
GLOSSARY ..........................................................................
433
A BIOLOGICAL LEXICON ..........................................................
445
INDEX ................................................................................
447

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